Information and Systems Security, including: security technologies, secure systems, security applications, and security policies. Security technologies include access control, assurance, authentication, cryptography, intrusion detection, penetration techniques, risk analysis, and secure protocols. Security systems include security in operating systems, database systems, networks and distributed systems, and middleware. Representative security applications areas are information systems, workflow systems, electronic commerce, electronic cash, copyright and intellectual property protection, telecommunications systems, and healthcare. Security policies encompass confidentiality, integrity, availability, privacy, and survivability policies, including tradeoff and conflicts amongst these.